Realizing that as long as one is mere body-mind one is subject to potential or actual suffering, one tries to see if there is a way out.
The scripture or guru tells one that there is indeed a way out of suffering because one is not actually the body-mind but Consciousness.
To convince you that you are not the body-mind but Consciousness, the Guru resorts to four prakriyas (methodologies of teaching):
- Kaarana-Kaarya Prakriya (cause-and-effect analysis; name-and-form analogy)
- Avasthatraya Viveka (discrimination of the three states [the three states being waking, dreaming, deep sleep])
- Panchakosha Prakriya (analysis of the five sheaths)
- Drk-Drsya Viveka (discrimination between the Seer [Drk] and Seen [Drsya])
Once you hear (Sravana) the above truth from scripture or guru, you need to reflect (Manana) on the truth you have heard (Sravana) so as to clear all your doubts and become intellectually convinced that what the scripture or guru told you is the Truth.
After Sravana and Manana are over, you may or may not become self-realized or liberated. Advanced seekers may become liberated merely through Sravana or through Sravana and Manana. Rest of us who have a lot of past karmic tendencies (Vasanas) acquired in previous births, we have to resort to Nididhyasana (dwelling on or contemplating the Truth ascertained by Sravana and Manana) until all vasanas are exhausted and one attains Jivan-Mukti.
1. Kaarana-Kaarya Prakriya (Cause-and-Effect Analysis; Name-and-Form Analogy)
The world is just names-and-forms, the underlying substance or reality being Consciousness. How so?
Clay Pot Example
CLAY POT – THE REALITY OF THE UNIVERSE
Everything Is Consciousness
Advaita Vedanta in a Nutshell
2. Avasthatraya Viveka (discrimination of the three states [the three states being waking, dreaming, deep sleep])
See Swami Sarvapriyananda’s videos on it:
Who Am I? –
3. Panchakosha Prakriya (analysis of the five sheaths)
See Swami Sarvapriyananda’s excellent video on this:
The Secret of the Five Sheaths – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPtHCCT1SZM&t=4s
4. Drk-Drsya Viveka (discrimination between the Seer [Drk] and Seen [Drsya])
Again, see Swami Sarvapriyananda’s excellent videos on this:
Drk Drsya Viveka – analysis of the Seer and Seen (in 6 parts) – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gowrWV2STw&list=PLlGBwTMjipCEshyz5_Y2g3TWXCrWIr7xg
Finally, to see how Consciousness comprises the whole world (Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma – All this is verily Brahman; Prajnanam Brahma – Consciousness is Brahman; Tat Tvam Asi – You are Brahman; Aham Brahmasmi – I am Brahman)
See Swami Sarvapriyananda’s video
Jnana Yoga: The Path of Knowledge –